Ohio is a state in the Midwest region of the United States, known for its agriculture, industry, and history. But did you know that Ohio also has a history of earthquakes? Although Ohio is not located near any major fault lines, it still experiences occasional seismic activity due to the movement of the North American Plate. In this article, we will explore the most powerful earthquake to ever rumble through Ohio, its causes, effects, and implications for the future.
What Was the Most Powerful Earthquake to Ever Rumble Through Ohio?
The most powerful earthquake to ever rumble through Ohio was a 5.4 M w quake on the moment magnitude scale, which measures the energy released by an earthquake. The earthquake occurred on July 31, 1986, at 10:47 a.m. EDT, and lasted for about 30 seconds. The epicenter of the earthquake was located near the town of Anna, in Shelby County, about 50 miles north of Dayton. The earthquake was felt throughout Ohio and in neighboring states, such as Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Some reports even claimed that the earthquake was felt as far away as Georgia and Ontario, Canada.
The earthquake caused minor to moderate damage in the epicentral area, mainly to buildings, roads, bridges, and utilities. Some of the most notable damage included cracks in walls, ceilings, and foundations, broken windows and chimneys, fallen bricks and plaster, and ruptured water and gas pipes. The earthquake also triggered several landslides and rockfalls, and created small fissures in the ground. The total damage estimate was about $5 million, which is equivalent to about $12 million in 2020.
The earthquake also caused some injuries and panic among the residents. About 20 people were injured, mostly by falling objects or debris. No fatalities were reported, but many people were frightened and evacuated their homes or workplaces. Some schools and businesses were closed for the day or the following days, and some people slept in tents or cars for fear of aftershocks. The earthquake also disrupted some communication and transportation systems, such as phone lines, radio stations, and trains.
What Caused the 1986 Ohio Earthquake?
The cause of the 1986 Ohio earthquake is still not fully understood, but scientists have proposed some possible explanations. One theory is that the earthquake was related to the ancient rift system that underlies the region. A rift is a zone where the earth’s crust is being pulled apart, creating faults and fractures. About 600 million years ago, a rift formed in the eastern part of North America, but it failed to split the continent. However, the rift left behind a network of buried faults that can still be reactivated by the stress from the plate tectonics.
Another theory is that the earthquake was induced by human activities, such as mining, drilling, or injecting fluids into the ground. These activities can change the pressure and lubrication of the faults, making them more prone to slip. In fact, some of the previous earthquakes in Ohio have been linked to such activities, such as the 1987 earthquake near Ashtabula, which was caused by the injection of brine into a disposal well. However, there is no conclusive evidence that the 1986 earthquake was induced by any specific activity.
What Are the Implications for the Future?
The 1986 Ohio earthquake was a rare and unexpected event, but it showed that Ohio is not immune to earthquakes. Although the probability of a large and damaging earthquake in Ohio is low, it is not zero. Therefore, it is important to be prepared and aware of the potential hazards and risks. Some of the steps that can be taken to reduce the earthquake risk include:
- Conducting seismic hazard assessments and mapping of the active faults in the region.
- Developing and enforcing building codes and standards that can withstand earthquake forces.
- Retrofitting and repairing the existing structures and infrastructure that are vulnerable to earthquake damage.
- Educating and informing the public and the officials about the earthquake risk and the emergency response plans.
- Implementing and monitoring the regulations and guidelines for the activities that can induce earthquakes, such as mining, drilling, and injecting fluids.
- Enhancing the seismic monitoring and warning systems that can detect and report the earthquake activity.
By taking these measures, Ohio can improve its resilience and readiness for any future earthquakes that may occur in the region.